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This medium size working dog breed from Eastern Siberia, the Siberian Husky started as a sled dog but later on it became popular as a family-companion and also a show dog. This dog, from the Spitz family, is a descendant of the sled dog. They are also used for racing and by hikers for pulling a skier. They were brought to Alaska after being used by Siberians for centuries. The free Siberian Husky puppies especially have lots of energy. They are gentle, friendly, intelligent, a bit stubborn and get bored easily. Appearance Size: The height is 20-24" and its weight ranges from 15-27 kg. Colour: They come in many colours and patterns - white, black and white, grey and white and copper red and white. White dots mark the tail, face and paws. Coating: The Siberian Husky is double-coated. A dense woolly undercoat and a soft upper coat that has straight and short hair on it makes the Siberian Husky weather resistant, enabling it to withstand the extreme temperatures during winters. Nose: The nose of the Siberian Husky is called a 'snow nose' which is basically nothing but a discolouration during winters. Eyes: Blue or brown or one eye blue and the other brown or partially blue and partially brown. They can occur in any of the above combinations. It has a furry, Prick ears which are triangular and a bushy and curved tail with a white tip which looks like that of a fox. Litter Size 6-8 puppies constitute an average litter. Diet They eat much lesser than expected and need very less food. Preferred Environment Being very energetic, it needs regular exercise and its quality of endurance makes it ideal to pull sledges over the snow and for hunting in the poles. They are not very suited to live in apartments but training and exercise can make them comfortable. They live in packs. Lifespan They live for 12-15 years. This article has originally been authored by me and appeared on the site:http://www.freepuppiessale.com
It was not a deliberate choice that found us owning huskies, but I am more than happy that we now have two of these wonderful animals. They are unique and very different when compared to most breeds of dog. Since we embarked on sharing our lives with huskies, our eyes and hearts have been opened up. These really are amazing dogs, highly intelligent and very strong willed, they do things on their terms, this can cause frustration to dog owners at times. But that is all part of their charm. These are highly active creatures that are surprisingly quiet, yet they can always let you know exactly what they want. They tend not too make a fuss, but love nothing better than being made a fuss of. What do they look like? This is the part of the review that I will step away from the accepted opinion. If you look at the Kennel Club's definition of the breed you will get a medium sized dog of a specific size and weight. I may be alone in not accepting their definitions as totally accurate, the Siberian husky has only relatively recently become a recognised breed by the Kennel Club. So any dogs that are either taller or smaller than the KC accepted standard is regarded by them as a fault. It may because of this that a lot of Huskies that are available for sale are not KC registered, this is not to say they are not huskies, it is just for one reason or another they have not been registered with the KC. The first thing you will notice about a Husky is its eyes, they are either blue or brown occasionally you will get a Bi-Eyed husky who has one brown and one blue. No matter what colour the husky is they tend to look as if they have black eye liner on, this tends to emphasise their eyes and helps them communicate without the need to resort to any vocal noise. There are a lot of different colours of husky from white and cream through to grey, tan, black and copper. The latter four are not pure colours; they tend to have these colours in a marked presentation. Often you will see masks on the dogs that although they vary in size and style are all readily identifiable as being that of a husky. The ears of a husky are triangular in shape. Pointing up and are in direct proportion to the animals head. Overall these medium sized dogs are well proportioned, with a strong appearance; they have a reasonably muscular build, with no fat on them. The other part of a husky is the tail, obviously the position of the tail depends on the dog's mood, but generally, the tail curls over the dogs back and has long hair on the outer side of the tail giving it a very striking appearance. The fur is one thing that people often comment on, they may tell the owner of a Siberian husky "that is not a husky its fur is too short". This is incorrect, Siberians do not generally have long fur, theirs is medium length although it may vary slightly from dog to dog. What happens is people often mistake the Alaskan Malamute with the Siberian Husky. The malamute has denser, longer and thicker fur than the Siberian and tends to be overall slightly larger. The best example is in the film "Eight Below", here you will see a film about a group of sled dogs, most are Siberians but two are Malamutes, if you watch the film carefully you will see the difference between the two breeds of dog. One thing that is very interesting is how a Huskies colours can change from a pup to a two year old dog. Basically the pup that you buy will change its markings as it grows, they may develop darker areas, the mask on the face will often become more pronounced. How easy are they to keep? As far as feeding is concerned, they can be a little fussy, they tend not to have the strongest stomachs or largest of appetites. They need human contact, it is not necessary that you make a constant fuss of them, but they just need to know you are nearby, leaving them alone for long periods of time is asking for trouble. Often a Husky left alone will find something to do; invariably this will involve something of a destructive nature. How much exercise do they need? If you enjoy dog walking then these are the animal for you, they need regular exercise and plenty of it. They do not seem to run out of energy when out walking, it tends to be the owner who runs out of steam first. Our husky bitch loves the sea and the sand. She will quite happily paddle about for hours Also ours do not mind the rain, cold weather or high winds either. They still need exercise even when the weather is at its worst. Are they related to the wolf? People often stop me in the street and ask is it a wolf? Well that is a simple No. However the debate as to how close they are related to the wolf rages and as far as I can see will always be the case. As far as I am concerned ALL domestic Dogs are related to the wolf and therefore the Siberian in that respect is no different. One thing that the Siberian does that is not so common in other domestic breeds is when it comes to a mother weaning her pups onto solid food, she will eat and then regurgitate for the pups to eat. On speaking to a vet about this particular trait, he said it was because they are closely related to the wolf. Another thing that is in favour of those who say they are closely related is the noises that they make, yes they can whimper and bark in a dog like way, but in general they tend to make very little in the way of noise and to attract attention they will raise their heads and howl. Are they good with other pets? This again is an issue that you need to think very carefully over. Huskies are extremely fast and will look at smaller animals as prey. There is no easy way to say this they can and will kill small animals (rabbits, cats etc), the only saving grace is they do not play with the animals; they make a quick and decisive kill. Please do not think of Huskies as killers, they are only doing what comes naturally to them. Are their any downsides Destructive - These animals love company (either human or that of another dog), if they are allowed to get bored then they may take to chewing (or digging see below) this could be any item from a child's toy, any coats or shoes within reach, not forgetting any item of furniture or even a wall if that takes their fancy. Huskies are not the only dog that will act in this manner, but they have taken this art form to a higher level. Compulsive diggers - Not just holes in your garden, a bored or playful Husky may decide that to dig a hole in a bed or settee would be fun and in a matter of minutes they can completely transform a once fine piece of furniture into a work of Husky art. I am unsure what causes this behaviour; it makes for a lot of thought, especially when you consider that once they have dug a hole in a piece of furniture they will bed down in it. Escape artistes - As I have already mentioned these dogs have a compulsion to dig, but they are also able to climb and jump with amazing agility, if you let them out in your garden you will need to make sure you have high gates and fences and this needs to either go deep into the ground or the ground needs to be paved and or concreted. Our husky bitch can be sitting on one side of a child safety gate and from that position and seemingly with little effort can jump over the gate without touching it. Very strong willed - Probably because these animals are bright they tend to do things as and when they want. They seem to sit and reason their actions. They can do things that you would not have imagined them being capable of, normally this will be a source of amusement, but it can also be a source of frustration for the owner. They love to pull when being walked - This is not really a surprise when you think of it, after all these animals have been bred for a lot of years to pull sledges and just because you have a pet does not mean they lose what is now part of their nature. The best way to combat this is to use a harness rather than a collar when walking a husky as this means they are not constantly pulling from their neck. It also gives the handler more control over the animal. Very difficult to train - They do learn, commands such as sit, and with more than a little patience and persuasion on the part of the owner a Husky will obey such commands most of the time. It is very true that even the most obedient Husky is easily distracted by nearly anything; a moth flying by will mean a Husky will be more interested in that than sitting just because you have told/asked it to. I have yet to see a Husky perform at an agility competition, if you could get one to do it, they would do well as they are fast and very agile, but it would only be done on their terms. Toys - They do play with toys, often as not play is on their terms. Our bitch will look enthusiastically as you throw a ball for her to fetch. She will still look on with the same enthusiasm as we go and pick up the ball again. One look into her eyes will tell you that although she enjoys watching, the very thought of her chasing after a ball let alone bringing it back really is below her. The male pup on the other hand has a selection of his favourite toys and he tends to have them strategically placed around our house and often he will walk around with one in his mouth. Road Safety - Well for such an intelligent animal they tend to be extremely dense when it comes to road traffic, they do not see the danger of cars hurtling past them and quite a few who have either been let off of the lead or have absconded from their home have met with tragic accidents. Moult - As with most dogs Huskies moult twice a year. In common with most breeds of dog this is a time where the owners may start to question the wisdom of having a pet in the first place. Although they shed an awful lot of fur, it tends to come away in clumps in a very short space of time. We have found the best way is to take the dog outside and groom it. Continue to do this as many times as you can until the moult is over. The husky will be very happy with all the added fuss. Things you cannot do with a Husky Never let them off of a lead - Now this is really important, people who know best have decided that their Husky is different and as they have trained it, then the dog can be let off of the lead safely. Please believe me a Husky should never be allowed off of a lead, I have read horror stories of people who thought they knew better and ended up losing their dog. You need to realise if a Husky sees something that interests it, then the Husky will go to investigate, roads and cars will not deter the animal in its endeavour, tragically this all too often results in the death of a dog. Our husky bitch has a strange association with Staffordshire bull terriers. Whenever she sees one her heckles rise and she actually starts drooling. Now I hope that I do not find out the truth, but it seems to me that she wants to eat one. As far as she is concerned a staff is only marginally larger than a cat or a rabbit and definitely smaller than a sheep. So if you are the owner of a staff and see someone walking a husky, please don't take a chance, put your dog on a lead, it could be me walking my husky. Personally we have an extending lead made for a large breed of dog, the longer and stronger this type of lead is the better, it means the dog can still run, just that the dog is still under the control of the human at the other end of the lead. I see far too many dogs in parks that run free; I am not talking about huskies but all breeds of dog. Fair enough some are under voice control of their owners, but I do worry about those dogs that run free, jump up at people as and when they want. The owners of such pets should consider other people in the park and if their dogs are not under their full control then the dog should not be off of a lead in the first place. Keep them away from small animals and livestock - If you own other pets especially cats and rabbits then you need to think very carefully before getting a Husky. As previously mentioned a Husky must never be let off of a lead this is also true where livestock is concerned, they are not likely to worry sheep as other dogs can, they are more likely to kill one. It can also be very bad for a huskies health to be off of a lead in the vicinity of livestock, it is just possible that the animal may be shot by a farmer. So far all I have listed is the negative attributes of this breed of dog, with that in mind those of you who are reading this will be starting to wonder why anyone would want to own one of these animals. Get Fit - You will find that these animals absolutely love being walked, they will encourage you to walk great distances and get fitter in the process. But they are not without heart, when they have had a decent amount of exercise they do tend to ease up and allow a much more sedate pace. Children - We have a large family and feel safe when the children and the huskies are in the same vicinity. These dogs are very social and loving when it comes to human contact. In fact they really crave the contact and affection. Loyalty - It probably comes from their pack instinct and it is no bad thing that they take their human owners as part of that pack. Two very good instances spring to mind. The first I was walking our girl husky, as we approached a corner a man ran round the corner, the husky reacted instantly by jumping in front of me and confronting the man, there was no barking, snarling or growling, just a determination in her eyes and her heckles raised, as soon as she realised the man was not a threat she relaxed very quickly. The second time involved a family friend who was playing enthusiastically with our 14 month old son, our male 4 month old husky pup, decided that the play was not in the boy's best interest and began barking at the family friend, this continued until the pup decided that the toddler was not being harmed. Temperament - They are generally very friendly and gentle, alert and outgoing. They do not make good guard dogs as they are not naturally aggressive towards strangers, however this does not mean they are unable to protect if they feel threatened. Intelligence - The husky in general is a bright animal, from my experience they seem to be good at solving problems, especially how to get through a door. They are happy when they are on the go and make a great companion. Health - Unlike a lot of breeds of dog that are prone to inherited conditions, the husky tends not to have any. Apart from their fussy appetite and slightly delicate stomachs they have no major health worries. Overall A Siberian Husky makes a very good pet and companion. Their friendly nature makes them a pleasure to be with. As with all animals they are a commitment for a number of years. Also because of their nature and needs any prospective owner needs to think very carefully before deciding if a husky really is the pet for them. Finally if you are still not sure and want to get more information about huskies then a good website to visit is "The Siberian Husky Club of Great Britain" (www.siberianhuskyclub.com) here you will find out quite a lot about the breed including shows, sled racing, stories and even some pictures of the damage a husky can cause.
Siberian Huskys are one of the most beautiful breeds of dogs we are blessed with, whenever I take mine out I have to add and extra half an hour or so on to the time slot to allow for all the people who stop me and ask me questions. They are not a common breed here, but there popularity is increasing. Alot of people are not sure on the breed, commonly when l am out with mine people say "thats a nice Akita" and I think to myself how can you confuse the breeds the look nothing like each other. Before considering buying a Siberian Husky I must firstly warn you that if you do have the pleasure of sharing you life with one, you are bound to find them addictive and you are bound to want more. Secondly is a husky the right breed of dog for you? People say many different things about the breed, some say they should never be allowed off the lead, some say they should, some say you should not keep any other pets apart from dogs, others will tell you how the husky and cat curl up together at night. Just remember that no two animals are the same. On my own personal experience l sold the pet rabbit my daughter had, as Mika ate the door off the hutch and was chasing the rabbit around the back garden. I did not want to have a dead rabbit on my hands so took the sensible option. Knowing that huskys are running machines and that is basically what they have been bred for hundreds of years, l dont let mine off the lead, you can even get into the racing side of husky life. Huskys are not the breed of dog for people who are out all day, as they really are pack animals and need to be part of the pack, walked and with you. If you are house proud or have an amazing garden, again they are not for you. My back garden resembles the surface of the moon, with a lovely selection of holes! And the house when they are shedding fur well thats another story. I also know of huskys who have torn up suites in a matter of minutes when left alone. Furthermore huskys are very strong minded and will only follow a command if they see fit to or if they percieve it is worth their while, which can be highly amusing and also frustrating depending on the situation. They do not make guard dogs as they are more likely to open the door for burgulars and show them where the valuables are than guard your house. Unlike alot of other dog breeds they dont bark, mine only make a noise when playing with each other or l hear the occasional howl in the garden, which is a most amazing haunting sound. Its not that l want to put anyone off getting a Siberian Husky, I just dont like the number of this beautiful breed that l end up seeing in dog shelters or needing new homes. I am sure alot of this can be avoided if people understand the breed and its needs before entering into ownership. I personally would not be without mine and could not imagine a house without huskys. I dont mind the disadvantages at all before l got mine l found out as much as l could about the breed so I knew what l was in for. Siberian Huskys really are a joy to own and well worth the hard work. Just make sure you know what you are letting yourself in for!!!
Pet, Worker and Show dog all are roles fulfilled by the breed of dog that I own. My Siberian Huskies are referred to as many things: Eskimo Dog, Sled Dog and Wolf. They are not overly common here in the UK but everyone knows what breed they are as they are so striking and they draw lots of attention. They are not a dog to be brought into the family fold easily though. I am writing this opinion for two reasons. 1. Dooyoo prompted it ? Huskies are something else I know about 2. A person could easily buy Husky and not know what they were letting themselves in for. I hope my opinion will stop there being a lot of abandoned Husky Pups in the UK. **** Background **** Along with the Alaskan Malamute and the Samoyed, the Husky is a direct descendant of the Eskimo Dog. The jury is still out as to whether or not the breed has at sometime been crossed with wolves. This could have happened in Eskimo times as wolves are better hunters but Huskies have better endurance, as they are smaller. The most famous Husky is Balto the lead dog in the 1925 Anchorage Serum Run. The bronze statue of Balto in Central Park, New York sums up all that he did, and it says: ‘Dedicated to the indomitable spirit of the sled dogs that relayed antitoxin 600miles over rough ice, across treacherous waters and through arctic blizzards form Nenana to the relief of a stricken Nome in 1925. Endurance - Fidelity – Endurance’. **** Appearance **** I do not show my Husky dogs although they are able to participate under the ‘Working Dog’ category. The standard allows however, for a mix of colours from red, white, grey and black. My personal favourite is the white and black blend as this is characteristic of the breed. Husky dogs are often born with two blue eyes, over the early growing up stage the colouring may change. Both of my ‘boys’ were born with blue eyes, Tzar now ha s one blue and one brown whilst Merlin has both brown. Husky dogs have a double coat and it appears that they are constantly maulting. In truth it is only twice a year around April and September. The breed is quite vain though and is very good at cleaning itself. Surprisingly they do not have a doggy odour, which means that they do need minimum bathing. What is time consuming though, especially in the longer haired breed is the grooming. Please don’t be fooled into thinking that a husky pup will keep the same coloured markings and eye shadings as these develop over time and can change. A breeder I have told me of a pup who was born with blue eyes and then deserted when they changed to brown at about 10 weeks. **** Temperament **** Although very skilled in snow and extremely sporty and energetic the Siberian Husky is not a guard dog. They are aware of the humans in their pack and are protective towards them, but are likely to show a burglar around rather than defend property. As their expression is always alert and friendly they draw many a fan walking down the road. I would sum them up as friendly alert and intelligent. However as they are a traditional pack animal, the owner needs to take charge and show who is boss. I must admit that I was scared of dogs (due to being bitten as a baby), and this comes across in my relationship with Tzar. Having learnt more about the breed I am able to keep on top of Merlin but Tzar will often challenge me to see if he can advance a notch in the pecking order. Rarely do I hear my boys bark - Huskies howl and if they don’t get their own way they will howl and howl and howl! **** Play **** Each day my dogs are taken to work in my boyfriends van. They are either out in the van or workshop all day. They have a 150-foot square garden to run around in but this is not enough so each evening they are taken to the rugby fields near to where we live. The sad apa rt about this is that they only ever get to run around on their extendable leads as every book ever written about the breed will tell you – ‘let them run - but don’t let them off’. This is because Huskies have the need to run bred into them, and they are likely to stop running and think ‘where am I?’ We have lost ours twice and it is a heart stopping experience. As we had them micro chipped we got them back. How could they loose them? ? This is what you are probably thinking. Well we knew we shouldn’t let them off, but we did. We took them to the usual field at about 1am and thought it would be safe. You see we have been to puppy/intermediate training classes and the boys are great at their recalls etc there. But in the fields??.. We lost them as they chased after a fox. The only safe place to really let them run is a fenced in area or doggy park and these are available. I have a rabbit and have had to build a stronghold for him as previously Tzar smashed into the old rabbit house I had (luckily my rabbit Whitby fainted so no harm was done). With regards to Huskies and children it is recommended that they are not introduced until the child is aged around 8. My niece aged 3 does not meet my dogs. **** Cost **** We bought each of ours for £500 from a well-known breeder in Colchester. With that we had the customary six weeks insurance thrown in to. Each year we take them to the vet for worming, jabs and a check up this costs about £200 for both dogs. The hard-hitting cost comes with the food. You see huskies have to have a High Protein, High Fat diet that comes mainly from meat not vegetable. It needs to be highly digestible or the stomach problems we experienced with Tzar will occur. We also spend £70 per week on food and boredom breakers to keep them entertained. I have excluded the cost of travelling to days out in this as this type of item varies from owne r to owner. Personally we take our boys on the 250mile round trip to the New Forest and then to Bournemouth beach as often as possible as it gives them a new place to explore and then the thrill of the sea to calm down in. You may feel that this review is all negative about the breed but that is not the case. They are highly intelligent and very giving but at the same time they are very time consuming and need to be watched with young children and other animals. I say this because already Tzar is onto his fourth kill - foxes, cats, birds and small animals. I love my dogs totally and wouldn’t be without them but at the same time I know that the people they meet would love to buy one too, because of the lovely way they look and their mannerisms. This opinion has been written in the hope that people will not steam in and buy a Husky without thinking that they are not a normal dog and they need a lot more care and attention than perhaps a Labrador would.
Brief Description: Siberian Huskies are a medium sized (20-24 inches) working dog. Their medium length coat is soft and smooth with a downy, dense undercoat. Huskies come in a variety of colours and markings including solid white. Eyes can be brown or blue or even one of each. Although Huskies seldom bark, they can howl, and also talk in a soft wooh, wooh, wooh. A Husky can also be extremely vocal if asked to do something they do not want to do! Even the most gentle of persuasion can elicit a blood curdling scream! These dogs have a stubborn streak a mile wide, and are not best suited to first time dog owners. Although the Husky will respond to training, he will tend to do everything on his own terms, and in his own sweet time! Easily bored, it is best to be as varied as possible in your training, in order to keep your Huskies attention. The Siberian Husky is a very friendly dog, and will not make a good watch dog. Though loving towards their owners, they are also loving to anyone they meet, and would happily go off with most people or lead the burglar to your family treasure! Usually friendly with other dogs, yet capable of defending itself if attacked, these dogs fit in well with a family that already has dogs. If you are particularly house proud, the Husky is not for you! The shed coat all year round, and at moulting time, you will wonder how they can shed so much hair, and not yet be bald! However, they are clean dogs, with no ‘doggy’ odour, and many people with allergies to other dogs, report no problems with a Husky. Main health problems associated with Huskies, are hip dysplacia and eye problems (your prospective puppies parents should be tested for these), over heating (due to their thick coat) zinc deficiency and thyroid problems. If you are considering buying a Husky, it is important that you are aware of the following points; Huskies have a reputation for being good escape artists, and it is important to have a secure garden. Huskies can have a very strong hunting instinct, and some have even been known to kill chickens, cat, small dogs and sheep. If introduced to other household pets from a young age, however, they will normally accept them as part of the pack and be fine together, mine shares a garden with two ducks, and apart from trying to play with them as a puppy, there has been no problems. (I would advise not leaving ANY dog unsupervised with small animals/wildlife unless you are 110% sure.) Huskies have a reputation for being bad off the lead. Some people will advise you to never let your Husky off the lead. I believe each Husky is an individual, and must be treated as such. In any case, early obedience training, and your establishment as pack leader will help, BUT do be prepared, there is every possibility that you may end up with a dog that you cannot let off the lead. Think in advance, if this happens, how will you exercise the dog? If you will be training it to pull a sled, this will obviously solve the exercise problem, but if you just want it as a pet, please think carefully. My own Husky is fine off the lead, (although it has taken ALOT of training, and it is an ongoing thing to get her to be trustworthy), but I am assured by several Husky experts, that some Huskies simply cannot be trusted off the lead EVER, no matter how much training is involved. If you decide that a Husky is the dog for you, please, please make sure you are prepared to put in the time it needs for exercise, and that you have the patience you will inevitably need for the training! Have fun and good luck!
Siberians have had a bad press, often undeserved. Most websites and books describe them as escape artists, unsafe off the lead as they love to run and run, and advise keeping on a lead, and installing high fences and deep foundations at home to stop them escaping. well, some siberians ARE like that. Many have been bred for racing, and this growing sport has produced real "tearaway" personalities and characters. Also, the great fashion for blue eyes means that there is extensive inbreeding to guarantee the blue eyes will result. But there ARE stable lines. I let my husky run free. It doesn't dig or climb. But is hasn't been bred for the show ring, but for a stable temperament, as a pet dog. Siberians are even capable of obedience or agility work with a lot of hard work and training. Don't write off a breed because of the publicity.
If you are thinking of getting a Siberian Husky, be very sure to do your homework first. These dogs - as gorgeous and friendly as they are - are not always easy to keep. A medium sized dog that is very energetic, they shed their dense coat twice a year - and it is like nothing you have ever seen! If you are house-proud - forget it, the Sibe is not for you. Siberians have a reputation for being great escape artists who will run away if exercised off the lead and who will kill rabbits, sheep, even small dogs. (I have not had this experience with my own Husky (Nanook) but if you read my opinion in 'animal welfare' entitled 'Inbreeding and the kennel club' you will see that she has a few health problems.) Despite the fact that I personally have not experienced these problems, they are certainly to be considered if you are thinking of taking on a Husky. What if it is an escape artist? Is your garden fence high enough (and deep enough!) to keep it in? What if you can't let it off the lead without running off? Do you have a large enough enclosed area to be able to exercise it freely? Obviously if you are going to be sledding your Husky, the exercise problem is solved. The Siberian Husky does not bark, but it is very vocal. It has a few noises, and you will quickly learn what they mean, particularly the one used by your dog to convey to you that it does not want to 'sit' 'down' 'heel' 'be bathed' or any other thing you can think of. The Siberian Husky is extremely stubborn and believes that its opinion is far more important than yours! Training is essential, but don't expect the Husky to excel at obedience! Despite their stubborn streak, the Siberian Husky is a great dog. Fantastic characters who are so friendly they will win over everyone who meets them (they do NOT make guard dogs, they don't bark and will likel y lick the burglar to death) If you do your homework, and decide that you can give a Siberian Husky a good life, I am sure you will never look back!